Flooding explained Flood risk is a particular problem for the UK. The two primary causes are climate change, resulting in increased severity and intensity of rainfall, and new developments on floodplains, which are themselves at risk of flooding, and which increase the risk of flooding downstream.
It is estimated that:
1.5% of the country is at risk from direct flooding from the sea
About 7% of the country is likely to flood at least once every 100 years from rivers
1.7m homes and 130,000 commercial properties, worth more than £200 billion, are at risk from river or coastal flooding in England
Many more properties are also at risk from flash floods.
The effects of flooding, and managing flood risk, cost the UK around £2.2 billion each year: we currently spend around £800 million per annum on flood and coastal defences; and, even with the present flood defences in place, we experience an average of £1,400 million of damages.
The level of predictability – this affects the timing, accuracy and communication of warnings given before a flood.
The rate of onset of the flood – how quickly the water arrives and the speed at which it rises will govern the opportunity for people to prepare and respond effectively for a flood.
The speed and depth of the water – this dictates the level of exposure of people and property to a flood. It is difficult to stand or wade through even relatively shallow water that is moving. Flood water often carries debris, including trees, and water over 1m in depth can carry objects the size of cars. Fast flowing water can apply devastating force to property and other receptors.
The duration of the flood - this is another important factor in determining the extent of its impact, particularly on individuals and affected communities.
Task: Create a leaflet that will raise awareness of the effects of flooding and what they can do to reduce the impacts of floods. Success criteria · It should contain images and pictures.
· An introduction about flooding - eg where it could occur.
· A flood plan - eg what people need to do.
· What flood protection equipment they could use to protect themselves.